Prevalence and Associated Factors of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract:

Objective: A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Mossoró/RN and to evaluate the correlation of associated risk factors. Subjects and methods: Pregnant women attended at Brazilian National Health Service between January 2016 and January 2017 were evaluated using a specific questionnaire with demographics and baseline caractheristics and first trimester fasting plasma glucose glycemic (FPG), followed by OGTT 75g schedule between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Diagnostic criteria recommended by the IADPSG were used. Results: 166 pregnant women were recruited, with a mean age of 24.7 years, predominance of brown and white races, most with low schooling and low income, 38.5% presenting pre-gestational weight excess. Of the pregnant women with FPG collected in the first trimester, 13.8% had GDM, with a mean FPG 101.2 mg/dL; among 76 patients who completed the evaluation, 04 (5.3%) had a diagnosis of GDM with OGTT 75g, totaling 20 of 76 patients evaluated, with a total prevalence of 26.3%. Direct correlation between age and GDM was observed only in pregnant women diagnosed in the first trimester. No correlation was observed with the other factors evaluated: color, height, income, schooling, history of PCOS and gestational hypertension, family history of DM2, pre-gestational obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Conclusion: a high prevalence of GDM was identified, with a large percentage already identified in the first trimester. Additional studies are needed to better define risk factors in this population, as well as the impact of this early diagnosis on neonatal outcomes.

Keywords: Gestational diabetes. Prevalence. Risk factors.

Authors:
Gilka Firmino Torres Barisic;
Lidia Maria Oliveira Barisic;
Lucas Costa Feitosa Alves;
Stephan Barisic;
Fausto Pierdoná Guzen;
Eudes Euler de Souza Lucena.

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