Physiological and Clinical Aspects of Eletrical Synapse: Emphasis of the Connexin 36

The aim of this review is to gather recente findings from the literature on how electrical synapses act and how changes in their structure, with emphasis on conexin 36 influences clinical aspects. Research studies have been selected based on research topics found in globally recognized databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Springer and Scopus from 2009 to date and ranked by relevance. Previously, it was believed that brain functioning required only electrical circuits for decision making. However, John Eccles has proven the predominance of chemical synapses in the nervous system; This hypothesis that led to discrediting the functionality of electrical synapses. However, several studies have described the structure of the gap junctions and the mechanisms of the electrical synapse, which occurs through two mechanisms: through low resistance interneuronal pathways through the communicating junctions and through extracellular electric fields generated by nerve cell activity. Therefore, it is a fact that this form of cellular communication has greater clinical applicability such as synchronization of electrical transmission in different neural groups. The prime example of this applicability is the existence of mixed synapses. This feature may be the key point for clarifying the genesis of various pathologies associated with cognitive disorders, learning and memory deficits.

Keywords: Electrical Synapses; Connexin36; Neuronal Gap Junctions.

Hosana Mirelle Goes e Silva Costa;
Paulo Leonardo Araújo de Góis Morais;
Débora Lopes Silva de Souza;
Claudio Lopes de Vasconcelos;
Dayane Pessoa de Araújo;
Lucidio Clebeson de Oliveira;
José Edvan de Souza Júnior;
Fausto Pierdoná Guzen;
José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti.

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