Behavioral changes to frontotemporal dementia diagnosis

Abstract:
Introduction: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was first described in 1892 and consists of a frontotemporal atrophy that preserves the posterior lobes. Genetically, several changes have been associated with the disease. Its clinical manifestation occurs through three presentations, such as: behavioral variant, non-fluent variants andsemantics. The diagnosis relies on magnetic resonance imaging to rule out other diseases. Treatment is through the use of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) to improve behavioral symptoms, including aggression, disinhibition and agitation. Methods: This is a systematic review of behavioral changes for the diagnosis of FTD. The PUBMED database was used for the research using the following keywords: “FTD”, “behavioral variant of FTD” and “diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia”. Results: Clinical manifestations correlate with the affected brain region. FTD patients may have apathy, which is one of the most common and disabling. It can also cause changes in sexual behavior. It is associated with a family history of neurodegeneration. Its most common form has a prognosis of survival of about 6 years. Discussion: There is a significant heterogeneity in psychiatric and neurological diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, of which the most prevalent diagnosis was vcDFT, but there is a great shortage of studies on the subject. Tests such as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are among the most commonly used short screening instruments to assess these changes and differentiate syndromes. The diagnostic criteria aim to categorize patients regarding vcDFT as ‘possible’, ‘’ likely ‘’ and ‘’ defined ‘’. Effective, careful and appropriate medical evaluation is necessary to understand aspects of family history of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, physical examination and cognitive assessment have the ability to identify most cases with likelihood of progression and can guide healthcare professionals to properly identify specific cases of FTD and refer patients to specific services if important. Conclusion: Therefore, due to their similarity with other dementia syndromes, it is necessary to create more specific instruments for their differentiation. It is also important to note that when the ability to perform executive activities is assessed, it is observed that there is impairment, whether in patients with progressing or controlled disease, which may be important in identifying and differentiating other dementia syndromes.

Keywords: Frontotemporal Dementia; Behavioral Change; Diagnostic; Treatment.

Authors:
Dallianny Gonçalves de Sousa Martins;
Tauê Posada Pereira;
Inavan Emerson da Costa Dantas;
Bárbara Mayã Austregésilo de Alencar;
Marconi Edson Maia Júnior;
Paula Cristina de Melo Santos and
Fausto Pierdoná Guzen

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