Author page: JPCBS

Prevalence of anaemia in a sample of elderly northeastern brazilians

Abstract:
Population growth is a worldwide phenomenon responsible for significant changes in the population pyramid. In this context, the increase in life expectancy has contributed significantly to the growth of the elderly population. Considering that this age group is associated with a decline in the functional reserve of multiple organic systems, a condition capable of causing dysfunctions and diseases in the elderly, the best clarification about the implications of aging becomes essential. The present research
aimed to study the prevalence of anemia in a sample of elderly people in northeastern Brazil. To that, 90 elderly residents in Mossoró-RN, belonging to groups of elderly people assisted by Family Health Strategy teams and arranged in different Family Health Care Centers, completed a questionnaire with socioeconomic data and a biochemical test that evaluated serum hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. The study found a prevalence of 12.2% of anemia in participants (Hb <12 g / dl in women and Hb <13 g / dl in men), which was was in agreement with other Brazilian studies that involved elderly enrolled in the Family Health Unit. However, a lower prevalence of the disease was observed when compared to studies that evaluated elderly people living in long-term institutions. In addition, it was found that 7.8% were illiterate; 47.2% had incomplete 1st grade; 16.7% had completed 1st grade; 16.7% had incomplete secondary education; 13.3% were in the 2nd grade; and 3.3% had 3rd grade. Besides that, attention to anemia in the elderly would help to improve the quality of senile life while reduces their impact on the global burden of diseases, explained in part by its correlation with poor nutritional status and major cognitive impairments, which are capable of interfering with daily activities and interaction of patients.

Keywords: Anaemia. Aged. Prevalence.

Authors:

Micheline M. F. C. Souza
Letícia L. Mendonça
José Edvan Souza-Júnior
Thiago L.H. Rego
José Rodolfo L.P. Cavalcanti

Evaluation of the hepatic funciotn of adult men under the use of testosterone base transdermal in the municipality of Belo Horizonte – MG / Brazil

Abstract:
Introduction: Recently, an expressive interest has developed about the importance of the condition known as male climacteric or andropause. In men this process is not universal, occurring in a portion of the male population with clinical manifestations that are more gradual than those occurring in menopausal women. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the hepatic function of adult men under testosterone transdermal use in the city of Belo Horizonte – MG / Brazil. Methods: The subjects of the research were men, patients of the Penchel Clinic admitted in 2017. As inclusion criteria, men would need to be between 19 and 55 years of age and total testosterone measured at values below 320ng / dl, which would characterize hormone insufficiency. After 60 days of hormone use, the men underwent biochemical reassessment for analysis of testosterone values. Results: Because it is a rapid absorption, short half life and non-return liver, this route of replacement becomes an excellent alternative of choice for testosterone in 100% of the subjects (p = 0.0441), suggesting that there was no statistically significant difference between the two measures evaluate GGT, the main acute marker of hepatic lesion alteration. Conclusion: Care for testosterone-deficient patients should focus on accurate assessment of total testosterone levels, symptoms and signs, as well as appropriate monitoring during treatment to ensure that therapeutic levels of testosterone are achieved and symptoms are improved.

Keywords: Transdermal hormone replacement; Testosterone; Liver function; Andropause.

Authors:
Lucas Mendes Penchel;
Amália Cinthia Meneses do Rêgo;
Irami Araújo-Filho;
Fausto Pierdoná Guzen;
Dinalva Brito de Queiroz.

Analysis of the influence of inoculation of ischiatic nerve fragments in the presence of astragalosíde ivin the neuroprotection of dorsal root ganglions in animals submitted to the transcription of the spinal cord

Abstract:
Introduction: Injury to the cord spinal is a complex medical disease, associated with a serious and disabling incapacity in life, predisposing to a systemic dysfunction that must lead to a secondary process, with a high risk of death. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of sciatic nerve fragmentation in the presence of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) on the neuroprotection of dorsal root ganglia after the transected spinal cord of the rat. Methods: The animals were submitted to a 4 mm long medullary transection at the lower thoracic level, and
sciatic nerve fragments plus 10 μl of saline solution (5%) were inoculated in the animals of group 1 and group 2, and fragments of sciatic nerves added 10μl of AS-IV. After 3 months the dorsal root ganglia parallel to the spinal cord region were removed and processed for tissue analysis using hematoxylin/ eosin staining. Results: In the group treated with sciatic nerve graft AS-IV, we observed the greatest preservation of the morphological root of the dorsal root ganglia when present in the group lacking AS-IV. Conclusion: Sciatic nerve grafting with the addition of AS-IV in the mouse transected marrow promotes neuroprotection in the dorsal root ganglion neurons.

Keywords: Sciatic Nerve; Astragalus Membranaceus; Spinal Cord; Dorsal Root Ganglion; Neuroprotection.

Authors:
Eurico de Souza Costa;
Dinalva Brito de Queiroz;
Amália Cinthia Meneses do Rêgo;
Francisco Irochima Pinheiro;
Irami Araújo – Filho;
Francisco Vitor Aires Nunes and
Fausto Pierdoná Guzen

Behavioral changes to frontotemporal dementia diagnosis

Abstract:
Introduction: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was first described in 1892 and consists of a frontotemporal atrophy that preserves the posterior lobes. Genetically, several changes have been associated with the disease. Its clinical manifestation occurs through three presentations, such as: behavioral variant, non-fluent variants andsemantics. The diagnosis relies on magnetic resonance imaging to rule out other diseases. Treatment is through the use of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) to improve behavioral symptoms, including aggression, disinhibition and agitation. Methods: This is a systematic review of behavioral changes for the diagnosis of FTD. The PUBMED database was used for the research using the following keywords: “FTD”, “behavioral variant of FTD” and “diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia”. Results: Clinical manifestations correlate with the affected brain region. FTD patients may have apathy, which is one of the most common and disabling. It can also cause changes in sexual behavior. It is associated with a family history of neurodegeneration. Its most common form has a prognosis of survival of about 6 years. Discussion: There is a significant heterogeneity in psychiatric and neurological diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, of which the most prevalent diagnosis was vcDFT, but there is a great shortage of studies on the subject. Tests such as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are among the most commonly used short screening instruments to assess these changes and differentiate syndromes. The diagnostic criteria aim to categorize patients regarding vcDFT as ‘possible’, ‘’ likely ‘’ and ‘’ defined ‘’. Effective, careful and appropriate medical evaluation is necessary to understand aspects of family history of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, physical examination and cognitive assessment have the ability to identify most cases with likelihood of progression and can guide healthcare professionals to properly identify specific cases of FTD and refer patients to specific services if important. Conclusion: Therefore, due to their similarity with other dementia syndromes, it is necessary to create more specific instruments for their differentiation. It is also important to note that when the ability to perform executive activities is assessed, it is observed that there is impairment, whether in patients with progressing or controlled disease, which may be important in identifying and differentiating other dementia syndromes.

Keywords: Frontotemporal Dementia; Behavioral Change; Diagnostic; Treatment.

Authors:
Dallianny Gonçalves de Sousa Martins;
Tauê Posada Pereira;
Inavan Emerson da Costa Dantas;
Bárbara Mayã Austregésilo de Alencar;
Marconi Edson Maia Júnior;
Paula Cristina de Melo Santos and
Fausto Pierdoná Guzen

A short communication about vascular dementia

Abstract:
Introduction: The Vascular Dementia (VaD) is an irreversible neurocognitive disorder related to cerebrovascular disorders. It is considered the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: The references included reviews published in the last 5 years, found through a search on PubMed database using the terms “Vascular Dementia”, “Clinical Diagnosis” and “Cerebrovascular Disease”. The articles were selected by analyzing the title and the abstract. Results: The initial search found 2556 results. 105 articles were selected when analyzed by time period, type of work (review) and MEDLINE filters. Those were the ones analyzed by tittle and by abstract, which left 9 articles considered useful for the proposal. Discussion: An insufficient amount of data about the physiopathology of the Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) were found. The absence of epidemiological data about VaD makes it impossible to develop researches related to the quantitative contribution of the vascular disease for VCI. The presence of coexisting comorbities in patients with VaD is a possible presentation, which turns important the correct identification of other simultaneous dementia cases. Conclusion: The VaD is considered a cognitive disorder that incorporates behavioral symptoms and locomotor system abnormalities. The repercussion of vascular disease in cognition is already known, but recent studies and advances in neuropathology, genetic and epidemiology have helped to deeply understand the VaD and its relation with VCI.

Keywords: Vascular Dementia; Clinical Diagnosis; Cerebrovascular Disease.

Authors:
Alcivan Batista de Morais Filho;
Bárbara Mayã Austregésilo de Alencar;
Danilo Alvarenga Ferreira;
Marconi Edson Maia Júnior;
Renan Cavalcante Souza;
Tatiana Leal Marques and
Fausto Pierdoná Guzen

Neuroprotective profile of Piper Methysticum (Kava Kava) and its effects on the Central Nervous System: a systematic review

Abstract:
Introduction: Piper Methysticum is a perennial shrub, native to the Pacific Ocean with historical and cultural significance, described in the literature as a compound that has a positive action on the nervous system, has anxiolytic, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant and anti- ischemic effects, having kavalactones as its main component. The aim of this work was to systematically review the effects of Piper Methysticum supplementation on neurological disorders. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted through the databases PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, Medline via Proquest and Capes Periodicals, through which a quantity of 10 pertinent articles was gathered. Results: Piper Methysticum demonstrated significant positive responses to reduce oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, Piper methysticum extract can have anti-ischemic and anticonvulsant effects mediated by blocking the Na+ channel voltage, as well as behavioral changes similar to anxiolytics and significant sedation. Conclusion: Thus, considering that Piper methysticum proves to be effective and has a phytotherapeutic potential to act as an adjuvant or alternative to existing drugs.

Keywords: Central nervous system (CNS); Piper Methysticum (kava-kava); Neuroprotection; Anxiety; Neurodegenerative diseases.

Authors:
Elaine Cristina Gurgel Andrade Pedrosa;
Ana Paula Carvalho Bezerra;
Ianara Mendonça da Costa;
Francisco Irochima Pinheiro and
Fausto Pierdoná Guzen

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